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 Because Portugal is much more than Lisbon!








Welcome!

Have you ever asked yourself where do Portuguese come from, what they have done in the past or for how long has the country existed? Well, look no further! Below you can find a very summarised historical timeline of Portugal, which we will be constantly improving. Check our legacy below and take a look at our  trivia  page as well, to research further. You will be amazed at the things you will find.

Enjoy!





  1. 600 bCE-XX-XX: Saephe, Cempsi, Cunetes, Dragani and Lusitanians settle the majority of the people of the area
  2. 500 bCE-XX-XX: First mint of coins and use of money in the Iberian peninsula (designated as such by Herodotus of Halicarnassus)
  3. 400 bCE-XX-XX: The Lusitanians populate the area between the Douro and the Tagus rivers.
  4. 210 bCE-XX-XX: Hasdrubal son of Gisco goes into Lusitania and camps near the Tagus mouth.
  5. 200 bCE-XX-XX: Romans control most of eastern and southern Hispania, along the Mediterranean coast.

  6. 197 bCE-XX-XX: Lusitania, Gallaecia and Asturias are included in the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior.
  7. 194 bCE-XX-XX: Lusitanians resist Roman invaders in a successful way in the beginning, but are defeated by Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica while attacking Ilipa.
  8. 180 bCE-XX-XX: Viriato, famous Lusitanian leader, is born in the Herminius Mons, common day Serra da Estrela.
  9. 179 bCE-XX-XX: Praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus gains a battle against the Lusitanians.
  10. 155 bCE-XX-XX: Beginning of the Lusitanian War.
  11. 152 bCE-XX-XX: The Roman Republic has problems in recruiting soldiers for the wars due to their brutality.
  12. 150 bCE-XX-XX: Praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba defeats the Lusitanians, killing and enslaving thousands
  13. 147 bCE-XX-XX: The Lusitanians suffer severe losses at the hands of the Roman army led by Caius Vetilius, appointed governor of Hispania Ulterior.
  14. 147 bCE-XX-XX: Caius Vetilius promises the Lusitanians lands in the south if they abide by Roman rule. Viriato urges the tribes not to trust the Romans and fight back.
  15. 147 bCE-XX-XX: Viriato becomes leader of the Lusitanians and they resist ferociously the Romans
  16. 147 bCE-XX-XX: The Lusitanians successfully resist Roman offensive and Caius Vetilius is killed by Viriato.
  17. 146 bCE-XX-XX: Viriato's Lusitanians defeat the combined Roman forces of three Roman commanders
  18. 145 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus is given the specific task of helping Caius Lelius defeat Viriato and the Lusitanians.
  19. 143 bCE-XX-XX: The Roman forces of Fabius Maximus Aemilianus are totally defeated.
  20. 140 bCE-XX-XX: Fabius Servilianus is defeated by the Lusitanians, declares Viriato to be a Friend of the Roman People and recognizes Lusitanian rule over their lands.
  21. 139 bCE-XX-XX: The Roman Senate deems Fabius Servilianus' actions unworthy of Rome, and sends Servilius Cipianus to defeat the rebellious tribes of Hispania.
  22. 139 bCE-XX-XX: Servilius Cipianus with aid of Marcus Pompilius defeats the Lusitanians and forces Viriato to take refuge north of the Tagus river.
  23. 139 bCE-XX-XX: Viriato tries to negotiate peace with Servilius Cipianus, but is betrayed and killed in his sleep by his men, Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus.
  24. 139 bCE-XX-XX: Rome kills the traitors Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus exactly for being traitors.
  25. 139 bCE-XX-XX: Viriato's Lusitanian armies led by Tautalus try to attack the Romans, but are defeated and this ends the Lusitanian War.
  26. 139 bCE-XX-XX: The Romans grant the Lusitanians lands in the south of Lusitania.
  27. 138 bCE-XX-XX: Roman campaign by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus after establishing himself in the south, rampages north, destroying everything on his path including an epic defeat of a combined army of 60,000 Lusitanians, Gauls, and Callaici earning him the cognomen Callaicus (the Galician).
  28. 137 bCE-XX-XX: Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus advances further north, mainly along the coastline, and establishes a fortified position in the area of modern Viseu.
  29. 137 bCE-XX-XX: The Roman legions cross the Douro river and enter the territory of the Gallaecians.
  30. 137 bCE-XX-XX: The Roman legions reluctantly cross the Lima river (Lethe, the river of forgetfulness), only after Decimus Junius Brutus crossed alone and called for them, thus proving he had not lost his memory.
  31. 136 bCE-XX-XX: Roman legions under Proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus reach the Minho river, but do not cross it for fear of losing their memories, again fearing they had reached the Lethe, the river of forgetfulness.
  32. 136 bCE-XX-XX: Decimus Junius Brutus conquers Talabriga and returns south leaving no garrisons; the Roman Senate grants him the title Callaicus for his campaigns in Gallaecia.
  33. 114 bCE-XX-XX: Praetor Gaius Marius is sent to govern Lusitania, having to deal with the Lusitanian difficult personality.
  34. 113 bCE-XX-XX: Romans fend off constant Lusitanian attacks with a long guerrilla war and the Lusitanian are defeated in the end. Roman consolidate the control on the land.

  35. 83 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus Sertorius returns to Iberia representing Gaius Marius party against Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the Roman Republican civil wars. Lusitanians join him.
  36. 81 bCE-XX-XX: Iberia experiences the Roman Republican War in all the territory.
  37. 80 bCE-XX-XX: Battle of the Baetis River: Quintus Sertorius Rebels defeat the Roman forces of Lucius Fulfidias.
  38. 79 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus Sertorius' armies control most of Hispania Ulterior and parts of Hispania Citerior.
  39. 77 bCE-XX-XX: General Marcus Perperna Vento from Rome joins Quintus Sertorius
  40. 77 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus Sertorius defeats the generals Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius at the Battle of Saguntum.
  41. 77 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus enters a reasonable peace with Lusitanian allies and even creates a Roman school for them.
  42. 75 bCE-XX-XX: Battle of the Sucro: Quintus is defeated on a 3 to 1 army battle.
  43. 72 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus Sertorius is assassinated at a banquet by instigation of Marcus Perperna Vento due to non-Roman military commanders' previleges.
  44. 72 bCE-XX-XX: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius pacifies and submits Hispania Ulterior but to the north of the Tagus river is still not totally occupied by the Roman Republic.
  45. 69 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar elected Quaestor and is assigned with a quaestorship in Lusitania (part of Hispania Ulterior, whose governor was then Antistius Vetus).
  46. 69 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar attacks the Lusitanian areas between the Tagus and the Douro rivers.
  47. 60 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar wins considerable victories over the Gallaecians and Lusitanians.
  48. 53 bCE-XX-XX: Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives dies in Parthia.
  49. 53 bCE-XX-XX: Marcus Petreius commands two Roman legions in Lusitania, between the frontier areas of the Lusitanians and the Vettones
  50. 49 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar goes into Hispania and defeats the legions of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus' legates, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marcus Petreius and Lucius Afranius, leaving Gaius Cassius Longinus as legate and facing growing difficulties in maintaining local populations obedient to Rome.
  51. 48 bCE-XX-XX: Gaius Cassius Longinus leads a campaign in regions of northern Lusitania, where he installs military garrisons that face a lot of local resistance.
  52. 46 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar proceeds to North Africa where he defeats the remnants of Pompey's Senatorial supporters (the Optimates) under Marcus Porcius Cato Uticencis.
  53. 45 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar orders after the Roman Civil War the pacification of Hispania and punish the local tribes for their disloyalty.
  54. 45 bCE-XX-XX: Romans deal with small local uprisings in the following years.
  55. 42 bCE-XX-XX: Julius Caesar is formally deified as "the Divine Julius" (Divus Julius).
  56. 28 bCE-XX-XX: Augustus' military campaigns pacificate all Hispania under Roman rule.
  57. 27 bCE-XX-XX: The Roman general and politician Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa divides all Hispania into 3 parts, Lusitania, Baetica and Tarraconensis.
  58. 27 bCE-XX-XX: The emperor Augustus returns to Hispania and makes a new administrative division, creating the province of Hispania Ulterior Lusitania, whose capital was to be Emerita Augusta (currently Mérida). Originally Lusitania included the territories of Asturias and Gallaecia, but these were later ceded to the jurisdiction of Provincia Tarraconensis and the former remained as Provincia Lusitania et Vettones.
  59. 27 bCE-01–16: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus becomes Roman Emperor as Caesar Augustus. Definitive end of the Roman Republic and establishment of the Roman Empire.
  60. 23 bCE-XX-XX: The emperor Augustus establishes the Principate and the Pax Romana.

  61. 284-XX-XX: Under Emperor Diocletian, Lusitania ends up united with the other provinces to form the Diocesis Hispaniarum ("Diocese of Hispania").
  62. 300-XX-XX: Braga becomes an Episcopal Diocese.
  63. 325-XX-XX: Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
  64. 366-XX-XX: Damasus, born in the Conventus Bracarensis of Gallaecia (near Guimarães), reigns as Pope under the name Damasus I.
  65. 385-XX-XX: Paulus Orosius, historian, theologian and disciple of St. Augustine, is born in Braga.
  66. 388-XX-XX: Paternus becomes bishop of the Episcopal see of Braga.

  67. 409-XX-XX: Invasion of the NW of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Gallaecia) by the Germanic Suevi (Quadi and Marcomanni) under king Hermerico, accompanied by the Buri.
  68. 409-XX-XX: Invasion of the Iberian peninsula by the Germanic Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and the Sarmatian Alans.
  69. 411-XX-XX: A treaty with Western Roman Emperor Flavius Augustus Honorius grants Lusitania to the Alans, Gallaecia to the Suevi and Hasdingi, and Baetica to the Silingi.
  70. 414-XX-XX: Paulus Orosius, clergyman of Braga, visits St. Augustine in Hippo Regius.
  71. 417-XX-XX: Balconius becomes bishop of Braga.
  72. 427-XX-XX: Hydatius is ordained bishop of Aquae Flaviae (Chaves), and writes the best chronicle of the history of Hispania in the 5th century.
  73. 455-XX-XX: The Bishop of Rome assumes control over all of Western Christianity, proclaiming himself Pope, under the name of Leo I.
  74. 456-XX-XX: King Theodoric II of the Visigoths defeats the Suevi at the Battle of Orbigo and sacks their capital city Braga.
  75. 462-XX-XX: Hydatius, Bishop of Aquae Flaviae (Chaves), is imprisoned by the Visigoths.
  76. 468-XX-XX: The Roman city of Conimbriga, near Coimbra, is sacked by the Suevi.
  77. 468-XX-XX: Lusídio, Roman governor of Lisbon, delivers the city to the Suevi.
  78. 469-XX-XX: Teodemundo becomes King of the Suevi.
  79. 470-XX-XX: Hydatius, Bishop of Aquae Flaviae, dies.
  80. 470-XX-XX: King Euric of the Visigoths conquers southern Gallaecia and Lusitania to the Suevi.
  81. 475-XX-XX: King Euric (who unified the various quarreling factions of the Visigoths) forces the Roman government to grant the Visigothic kingdom full independence. At his death, the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire.
  82. 476-09-04: Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when the chieftain of the Germanic Heruli, Odoacer, proclaims himself King. This is the official date for the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

  83. 501-XX-XX: Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
  84. 537-XX-XX: Profuturus becomes bishop of Braga.
  85. 561-XX-XX: Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
  86. 562-XX-XX: Saint Martin of Dumes becomes Bishop of Braga.
  87. 570-XX-XX: King Liuvigild of the Visigoths begins military actions with the explicit purpose of conquering all of Hispania.
  88. 572-XX-XX: Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
  89. 589-XX-XX: Pantardus becomes bishop of Braga.

  90. 624-XX-XX: The Visigoths, through the conquest of the last Byzantine domains and the Basque Country, control all of the Iberian peninsula.
  91. 633-XX-XX: Julian becomes bishop of Braga.
  92. 653-XX-XX: Potamius becomes bishop of Braga.
  93. 656-XX-XX: St. Fructuosus of Dumes becomes bishop of Braga.
  94. 663-XX-XX: Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
  95. 675-XX-XX: Leodegisius becomes bishop of Braga.
  96. 675-XX-XX: Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Braga.
  97. 681-XX-XX: Liuva becomes bishop of Braga.
  98. 688-XX-XX: Faustinus becomes bishop of Braga.
  99. 693-XX-XX: Félix becomes bishop of Braga. Félix of Braga was the last bishop of Braga to reside there until 1070, due to the Moorish invasion. His successors establishid themselves in Lugo (Galicia).

  100. 711-03-15: Muslim Umayyads, faithful to the Emir of Damascus and under the Berber Tariq ibn-Ziyad, invade and eventually conquer the Iberian Peninsula except for the Asturias. Resistance to Moorish occupation (A Reconquista) starts from this stronghold.
  101. 714-XX-XX: Abd al-Aziz, Musa ibn Nusayr's son, conquers Évora, Santarém and Coimbra. (to 715)
  102. 716-XX-XX: Lisbon is captured by the Moors.
  103. 718-XX-XX: Pelayo establishes the Kingdom of Asturias. This is considered to be the beginning of the Reconquista.
  104. 722-XX-XX: A powerful Moorish force sent to conquer Asturias once and for all is defeated by king Pelayo at the Battle of Covadonga.
  105. 737-XX-XX: King Pelayo of Asturias dies and his son Favila becomes king.
  106. 739-XX-XX: Alfonso, son of Peter of Cantabria, duke of Cantabria, and married to Ormesinda, daughter of Pelayo of Asturias, becomes King of Asturias.
  107. 739-XX-XX: The Moors are driven out of Galicia by Alfonso I of Asturias.
  108. 755-XX-XX: Abd ar-Rahman I of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Iberia to escape the Abbasids and would be responsible for creating "the Golden Caliphate".
  109. 756-XX-XX: The Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I defeats Yusuf al-Fihri and becomes Commander of al-Andalus Muslims, proclaiming himself Emir of Córdoba.
  110. 757-XX-XX: Fruela I becomes King of Asturias.
  111. 768-XX-XX: Aurelio becomes King of Asturias.
  112. 774-XX-XX: Silo becomes King of Asturias. In this period this is a lot of unrest in Galicia towards the rule of Asturias.
  113. 783-XX-XX: Mauregato the Usurper becomes King of Asturias. He was an illegitimate son of Alfonso I of Asturias, supposedly by a Moorish woman.
  114. 788-XX-XX: Death of Abd ar-Rahman I, founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba. His successor is Hisham I.
  115. 788-XX-XX: Bermudo I becomes King of Asturias.
  116. 791-XX-XX: Alfonso II becomes King of Asturias in Oviedo and conquers a number of Moorish strongholds and settles the lands south of the Douro River.
  117. 794-XX-XX: Asturians defeat the Muslims at the Battle of Lutos.
  118. 796-XX-XX: Al-Hakam I, becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.
  119. 798-XX-XX: In a raid on Muslim lands, Alfonso II of Asturias enters Lisbon but cannot occupy it.

  120. 800-XX-XX: 10-year Rebellion against the Muslims breaks out in the fringes of Al-Andalus (Lisbon, Mérida, Toledo). Each rebellion is bloodily suppressed by the central Islamic authorities.
  121. 813-XX-XX: The grave of James the Apostle is discovered near Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia, beginning the cult of St. James that would unite Iberian Christians of many different petty kingdoms.
  122. 822-XX-XX: Abd-ar-rahman II becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdova.
  123. 825-XX-XX: Moors attempt to invade Christian territory from Coimbra and Viseu but are driven back.
  124. 839-XX-XX: Alfonso II of Asturias commands a military force in the region of Viseu.
  125. 842-XX-XX: Ramiro I becomes King of Asturias.
  126. 844-XX-XX: Vikings raid the Galician estuaries, are defeated by Ramiro I of Asturias, attack Lisbon, Beja and the Algarve, and sack Seville.
  127. 844-XX-XX: Battle of Clavijo, battle between Christians led by Ramiro I of Asturias and Muslims
  128. 850-XX-XX: Ordoño I of Asturias becomes King of Asturias in Oviedo. Beginning of Christian repopulation. Rise of the county of Castile.
  129. 852-XX-XX: Muhammad I becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdova.
  130. 859-XX-XX: Ordoño I of Asturias defeats Musa ibn Musa at Albelda.
  131. 866-XX-XX: Alfonso III the Great, son of Ordoño I of Asturias, becomes King of Asturias. He initiates the repopulation of Porto, Coimbra, Viseu and Lamego.
  132. 868-XX-XX: Establishment of the 1st County of Portugal, a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Asturias, by count Vímara Peres, after the reconquest from the Moors of the region between the Minho and Douro Rivers. Count Vímara Peres founded the fortified city that bears his own name Vimaranis, later Guimaranis, present day Guimarães, considered "The Cradle City" of Portugal.
  133. 871-XX-XX: The city of Coimbra is reconquered from the Moors. Hermenegildo Gutiérrez is made Count of Coimbra.
  134. 873-XX-XX: Vímara Peres dies and his son Lucídio Vimaranes becomes Count of Portugal. After his death the county passes to the hand of count Diogo Fernandes.
  135. 878-XX-XX: The region of Coimbra in central Portugal is incorporated in the Kingdom of Asturias by the Count Hermenegildo Gutiérrez.
  136. 886-XX-XX: Al-Mundhir becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.
  137. 888-XX-XX: Abdallah ibn Muhammad becomes Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.

  138. 910-XX-XX: Ordoño II becomes King of Galicia with the support of the Count of Portugal.
  139. 911-XX-XX: Count Hermenegildo Guterres of Coimbra, dies and his son Arias Mendes becomes Count of Coimbra.
  140. 914-XX-XX: The capital city of the Kingdom of Asturias is moved from Oviedo to León, from now on Kingdom of León.
  141. 916-XX-XX: Ordoño II of León is defeated by the Emir Abd al-Rahman III in Valdejunquera.
  142. 918-XX-XX: Battle of Talavera where Muslims under Abd al-Rahman III defeat the Christians.
  143. 918-XX-XX: Pope John X recognizes the orthodoxy and legitimacy of the Visigothic Liturgy maintained in the Mozarabic rite.
  144. 924-XX-XX: Fruela II becomes King of León.
  145. 925-XX-XX: Ramiro II, son of Ordoño II of León, was the first to bear the title King of Portuguese Land (misnamed as Portugal was not a kingdom)
  146. 926-XX-XX: Ramiro II takes residency in the city of Viseu.
  147. 926-XX-XX: Mendo I Gonçalves, son of Count Gonzalo Betotez of Galicia) marries Mumadona Dias (daughter of count Diogo Fernandes and Onega) and becomes Count of Portugal.
  148. 928-XX-XX: Gonçalo Moniz, grandson of Count Arias Mendes of Coimbra, becomes Count of Coimbra.
  149. 929-XX-XX: Abd al-Rahman III proclaims himself Caliph in Córdoba and transforms the Emirate of Córdoba into an independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.
  150. 930-XX-XX: Ramiro II leaves his residency in Viseu.
  151. 931-XX-XX: Ramiro II becomes King of León.
  152. 938-XX-XX: First document where the word Portugal is written in its present form.
  153. 950-XX-XX: Countess Mumadona Dias of Portugal divides amongst her sons her the vast domains, upon the death of her husband Count Mendo I Gonçalves.
  154. 950-XX-XX: Gonçalo I Mendes, son of Mumadona Dias and Mendo I Gonçalves, becomes Count of Portugal.
  155. 955-XX-XX: Ordoño III of León attacks Lisbon.
  156. 956-XX-XX: Sancho I becomes King of León.
  157. 958-XX-XX: Sancho I of León is deposed.
  158. 958-XX-XX: Ordoño IV becomes King of León.
  159. 959-XX-XX: Countess Mumadona Dias donates vast estates to the Monastery of St. Mamede in Guimarães.
  160. 960-XX-XX: Sancho I of León is reinstated as King of León.
  161. 962-XX-XX: Count Gonçalo I Mendes of Portugal rebels against Sancho I of León.
  162. 966-XX-XX: Count Gonçalo Moniz of Coimbra rebels against Sancho I of León.
  163. 966-XX-XX: Vikings raid Galicia and kill the bishop of Santiago de Compostela in battle, but his successor St. Rudesind rallies the local forces and kills the Viking King Gundered.
  164. 967-XX-XX: Ramiro III becomes King of León.
  165. 968-XX-XX: Countess Mumadona Dias dies.
  166. 971-XX-XX: Another minor Viking raid in Galicia.
  167. 981-XX-XX: Count Gonçalo Moniz of Coimbra dies.
  168. 987-XX-XX: Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir lays waste to the now Christian Coimbra.
  169. 987-XX-XX: Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir seizes the castles north of the Douro River, and arrives at the city of Santiago de Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Al-Mansur burns it to the ground and destroys the Church of Santiago.
  170. 987-XX-XX: Count Gonçalo I Mendes takes the personal title Magnus Dux Portucalensium (Grand-Duke of Portucale) and rebels against King Bermudo II of León, being defeated.
  171. 999-XX-XX: Gonçalves Mendo II becomes Count of Portugal.

  172. 1008-XX-XX: Vikings raid Galicia, killing Count Gonçalves Mendo II of Portugal.
  173. 1008-XX-XX: Alvito Nunes, of a collateral line but also descent of Vímara Peres, married to Countess Tudadomna, becomes Count of Portugal.
  174. 1009-XX-XX: The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Badajoz becomes independent of the Caliph of Córdoba and governs the territory between Coimbra and North Alentejo.
  175. 1016-XX-XX: Norman invaders ascend the Minho river and destroy Tuy in Galicia.
  176. 1017-XX-XX: Alvites Nuno I, son of Alvito Nunes and Tudadomna, becomes Count of Portugal. He marries Ilduara Mendes, daughter of Gonçalves Mendo II and Tuta.
  177. 1018-XX-XX: The Taifa of the Algarve becomes independent.
  178. 1022-XX-XX: The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Lisbon emerges. It will be annexed by the Taifa of Badajoz.
  179. 1023-XX-XX: Muhammad III becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
  180. 1025-XX-XX: Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad, Abbadid Emir of Seville, captures two castles at Alafões to the north-west of Viseu.
  181. 1028-XX-XX: Nunes Mendo III, son of Alvites Nuno I and Ilduara Mendes, becomes Count of Portugal.
  182. 1028-XX-XX: Alfonso V, king of Asturias and León, lays siege to Viseu but is killed by a bolt from the walls.
  183. 1033-XX-XX: The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Mértola becomes independent.
  184. 1034-XX-XX: The Leonese destroy a raiding force under Ismail ibn Abbad of Seville. Ismail ibn Abbad flees to Lisbon.
  185. 1034-XX-XX: Gonçalo Trastemires – a Portuguese frontiersman – captures Montemor castle on the Mondego river.
  186. 1040-XX-XX: The Taifa of Silves becomes independent.
  187. 1044-XX-XX: Abbad III al-Mu'tamid, son of the Abbadid Emir of Seville Abbad II al-Mu'tadid, retakes Mértola, since 1033 an independent Taifa.
  188. 1050-XX-XX: Count Nunes Mendo III of Portugal is killed in battle sometime during this period.
  189. 1050-XX-XX: Mendes Nuno II, son of Count Nunes Mendo III, becomes Count of Portugal.
  190. 1051-XX-XX: The Taifa of the Algarve is annexed by the Taifa of Seville.
  191. 1057-XX-XX: Ferdinand I of Castille-León conquers Lamego to the Moors.
  192. 1063-XX-XX: The Taifa of Silves is annexed by the Taifa of Seville.
  193. 1064-XX-XX: Ferdinand I of León-Castile besieges Muslim Coimbra from 20 January until 9 July and eventually the Muslims surrender.
  194. 1064-XX-XX: The Mozarabic (Christian) general Sisnando Davides, who led the siege of Coimbra, becomes Count of Coimbra.
  195. 1065-XX-XX: Independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal is proclaimed under the rule of Garcia II of Galicia.
  196. 1070-XX-XX: Count Mendes Nuno II of Portugal rises against King Garcia II of Galicia.
  197. 1071-XX-XX: Garcia II of Galicia became the first to use the title King of Portugal, when he defeated, in the Battle of Pedroso (near Braga), Count Mendes Nuno II, last count of Portugal of the Vímara Peres House.
  198. 1072-XX-XX: Loss of independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal, forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother king Alfonso VI of Castile.
  199. 1080-XX-XX: Coimbra is again a Diocese.
  200. 1080-XX-XX: Count Sisnando Davides of Coimbra takes part in the invasion of Granada.
  201. 1085-XX-XX: The Order of Cluny is established in Portugal.
  202. 1090-XX-XX: Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin return to Iberia and conquers all the Taifas.
  203. 1091-XX-XX: Count Sisnando Davides of Coimbra dies.
  204. 1091-XX-XX: Alfonso VI of Castile gives her daughter Urraca of Castile in marriage to Raymond of Burgundy together with the fiefdom of Galicia.
  205. 1091-XX-XX: The Taifa of Mértola falls to the Almoravids.
  206. 1093-XX-XX: Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy sign a treaty whereby Henry promises to recognize Raymond as king upon the death of Alfonso VI of Castile, receiving in exchange the Kingdom of Toledo or of Portugal.
  207. 1094-XX-XX: Alfonso VI of Castile grants Raymond of Burgundy the government of Portugal and Coimbra.
  208. 1094-XX-XX: Henry of Burgundy marries Alfonso VI of Castile's illegitimate daughter Teresa of León.
  209. 1094-XX-XX: Almoravid Sir ibn Abi Bakr takes Badajoz and Lisbon. Fall of the Taifa of Badajoz.
  210. 1095-XX-XX: Establishment of the 2nd County of Portugal (Condado Portucalense), by Count Henry of Burgundy.
  211. 1095-XX-XX: The Almoravids take Santarém.

  212. 1103-XX-XX: In the absence of Henry, Count of Portugal in Rome or Jerusalem, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, aided by Soeiro Mendes, governs Portugal.
  213. 1107-XX-XX: Count Raymond of Burgundy dies. The Kingdom of Galicia passes on to his son Alfonso Raimúndez.
  214. 1109-07-25: Afonso Henriques, son of Henry, Count of Portugal, is born in the city of Guimarães.
  215. 1110-XX-XX: Henry, Count of Portugal unsuccessfully besieges King Alfonso I of Aragon in Penafiel.
  216. 1110-XX-XX: Urraca of Castile distances herself from her husband Alfonso I of Aragon accusing him of being abusive and infertile.
  217. 1110-XX-XX: Henry, Count of Portugal makes common party with Alfonso I of Aragon against Urraca of Castile.
  218. 1111-XX-XX: Almoravids led by Sir ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarém in the west.
  219. 1111-XX-XX: Conference of Palencia, where Urraca of Castile divides her estates with Henry, Count of Portugal and his wife and her sister Theresa.
  220. 1111-XX-XX: Urraca of Castile makes peace with her husband Alfonso I of Aragon, even though they remain separated.
  221. 1111-XX-XX: Henry, Count of Portugal, believing Urraca of Castile has betrayed him, besieges her and her husband Alfonso I of Aragon in Sahagún, aided by Urraca's son Alfonso Raimúndez.
  222. 1111-XX-XX: Henry, Count of Portugal grants city rights and privileges to Coimbra and captures Santarém from the Moors.
  223. 1111-XX-XX: Alfonso Raimúndez, Raymond of Burgundy and Urraca of Castile's son, is proclaimed King of Castile and León as Alfonso VII although this is not recognized.
  224. 1112-XX-XX: Henry, Count of Portugal dies. His son Afonso Henriques inherits the County of Portugal, but, being too young, it's his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, that governs the county after her husband's death with the title of Regina (Queen). Santarém recaptured by the Moors.
  225. 1114-XX-XX: The marriage between Urraca of Castile and Alfonso I of Aragon is annulled.
  226. 1114-XX-XX: The Taifa of Beja and Évora becomes independent.
  227. 1116-XX-XX: The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
  228. 1117-XX-XX: Almoravids under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf himself take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days.
  229. 1120-XX-XX: Afonso Henriques takes sides with the Bishop of Braga against his mother Theresa, Countess of Portugal and her lover, the Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia
  230. 1120-XX-XX: The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
  231. 1121-XX-XX: Alfonso Raimúndez comes into Portugal in a mission of sovereignty with his mother Urraca of Castile. Their armies capture Theresa, Countess of Portugal at Lanhoso, that accepts to go free and hold the County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of León.
  232. 1122-XX-XX: Afonso Henriques, aged 14, makes himself a Knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora.
  233. 1126-XX-XX: Urraca of Castile dies. Her son Alfonso Raimúndez finally becomes King Alfonso VII of Castile and León.
  234. 1127-XX-XX: Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Vimieiro to the Order of Cluny
  235. 1127-XX-XX: The Kingdom of León invades Portugal and besieges Guimarães. The Portuguese Knight Egas Moniz de Ribadouro manages to make King Alfonso VII of Castile and León accept promises of Portuguese fielty.
  236. 1128-XX-XX: Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Soure to the Knights Templar.
  237. 1128-07-24: Count Afonso Henriques defeats his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, in the Battle of São Mamede (near Guimarães) and becomes sole ruler (Dux – Duke) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles.
  238. 1129-04-06: Afonso Henriques proclaims himself Prince of Portugal.
  239. 1130-XX-XX: Prince Afonso Henriques invades Galicia.
  240. 1130-XX-XX: Prince Afonso Henriques' mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, dies in Galicia.
  241. 1130-XX-XX: The Knights Hospitaller install themselves in Portugal.
  242. 1135-XX-XX: Prince Afonso Henriques conquers Leiria from the Moors.
  243. 1135-XX-XX: King Alfonso VII of Castile and León is proclaimed Imperator totius Hispaniae.
  244. 1137-XX-XX: Battle of Arcos de Valdevez
  245. 1137-XX-XX: Peace treaty of Tui, whereby Prince Afonso Henriques acknowledges himself as vassal to King Alfonso VII of Castile and León, through the possession of Astorga.
  246. 1137-XX-XX: Prince Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
  247. 1137-XX-XX: The Moors retake Leiria.
  248. 1139-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal assembles the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where he was given the Crown from the Bishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.
  249. 1139-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors.
  250. 1139-07-25: Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal.
  251. 1140-XX-XX: The Knights Hospitaller receive lands and privileges from King Afonso I of Portugal.
  252. 1140-XX-XX: Portuguese victory in the Battle of Valdevez against Leonese and Castilian forces.
  253. 1140-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
  254. 1140-XX-XX: The Moors retake Leiria.
  255. 1142-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors and the town receives its foral (compilation of feudal rights) to stimulate the colonisation of the area.
  256. 1143-XX-XX: Treaty of Zamora: Alfonso VII of León and Castille recognizes the Kingdom of Portugal in the presence of King Afonso I of Portugal, witnessed by the papal representative, the Cardinal Guido de Vico, at the Cathedral of Zamora. Both kings promise durable peace between their kingdoms.
  257. 1143-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal declares himself vassal to Pope Innocent II, placing the Kingdom of Portugal and himself under the protection of Saint Peter and the Holy See.
  258. 1144-XX-XX: The Muridun ("Disciples") under Abul-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Qasi rebel in the Algarve.
  259. 1144-XX-XX: Ibn al-Mundhir takes Silves in his name and the governor of Beja, Sidray ibn Wazir, also supports him.
  260. 1144-08-12: Ibn al-Mundhir and Sidray ibn Wazir kill the garrison of Monchique castle. and 70 men take Mértola by surprise (12 Aug).
  261. 1144-XX-XX: The Taifa of Mértola and of Silves again become independent.
  262. 1144-XX-XX: The Order of Cistercians installs itself in Portugal, at Tarouca.
  263. 1145-XX-XX: The Taifa of Badajoz again becomes independent and conquers the Taifa of Mértola.
  264. 1146-XX-XX: The Taifa of Mértola gains independence from Badajoz.
  265. 1146-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal marries Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and Maurienne.
  266. 1147-XX-XX: The towns of Almada and Palmela, just south of Lisbon, are taken from the Moors.
  267. 1147-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal orders the construction of the church and monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Lisbon, in honour of St. Vincent the Deacon.
  268. 1147-03-15: King Afonso I of Portugal takes Santarém in a surprise attack.
  269. 1147-05-19: A fleet of almost 200 ships of crusaders (Second Crusade) leaves from Dartmouth in England.
  270. 1147-06-16: The crusaders fleet arrives at Porto and are convinced by the bishop, Pedro II Pitões, to continue to Lisbon.
  271. 1147-07-01: The Siege of Lisbon begins, after the armies of King Afonso I of Portugal were joined by the crusaders.
  272. 1147-10-21: The Moorish rulers of Lisbon agree to surrender to King Afonso I of Portugal, basically due to the hunger that was felt inside the city walls. The terms of surrender indicated that the Muslim garrison of the city would be allowed to flee.
  273. 1147-10-25: The city of Lisbon opens its doors to the Christian armies. As soon as the Christians enter the city the terms of surrender were broken. Many Muslims were killed, and the city was thoroughly plundered before King Afonso I of Portugal, honor bound, finally was able to stop the onslaught.
  274. 1148-XX-XX: Some of the crusaders that had helped King Afonso I of Portugal conquer Lisbon settle in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings is elected bishop of the renovated Diocese of Lisbon, but most of the crusaders' fleet continues to the east.
  275. 1149-XX-XX: A new Berber dynasty, the Almohad, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi conquers North Africa to the Almoravids and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula.
  276. 1150-XX-XX: The Taifas of Badajoz and of Beja and Évora are taken by the Almohads.
  277. 1151-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
  278. 1151-XX-XX: The Taifa of Mértola is taken by the Almohads.
  279. 1152-XX-XX: The Cistercians build the Monastery of St. John in Tarouca.
  280. 1153-XX-XX: The Cistercians build the Monastery of Alcobaça.
  281. 1154-XX-XX: Sancho, son of King Afonso I of Portugal and future King of Portugal is born.
  282. 1155-XX-XX: The Taifa of Silves is taken by the Almohads.
  283. 1158-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal conquers Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
  284. 1159-XX-XX: The Castle of Cera (in Tomar) is donated to the Knights Templar.
  285. 1159-XX-XX: Évora and Beja, in the southern province of Alentejo, are taken from the Moors.
  286. 1160-XX-XX: The city of Tomar is founded by Gualdim Pais.
  287. 1161-XX-XX: Évora, Beja and Alcácer do Sal are retaken by the Moors.
  288. 1162-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Beja from the Moors.
  289. 1165-XX-XX: The Portuguese armies, led by Gerald the Fearless, retake Évora from the Moors.
  290. 1165-XX-XX: Negotiations between Portugal and León result in the marriage of Princess Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter, with King Ferdinand II of León.
  291. 1166-XX-XX: The Portuguese armies take Serpa and Moura (in Alentejo) from the Moors.
  292. 1168-XX-XX: Portuguese frontiersman Gerald the Fearless goes into the territory of Badajoz.
  293. 1169-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal grants the Knights Templar one third of all they conquer to the Moors in Alentejo.
  294. 1169-XX-XX: Gerald the Fearless seizes Badajoz from the Almohads.
  295. 1169-XX-XX: King Afonso I of Portugal is wounded by a fall from his horse in Badajoz, and is captured by the competing forces of King Ferdinand II of León. As ransom King Afonso I was obliged to surrender almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia in the previous years as well as Badajoz, that the Leonese gave back to the Almohads as a vassal territory.
  296. 1170-XX-XX: The Almohads transfer their capital to Seville.
  297. 1174-XX-XX: The Crown of Aragon recognizes Portugal as independent.
  298. 1175-XX-XX: Beja recaptured by Almohads.
  299. 1179-XX-XX: Pope Alexander III, in the Papal bull Manifestis Probatum, recognizes Afonso I as King and Portugal as an independent country with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese or Castilian attempts of annexation.
  300. 1179-XX-XX: King Ferdinand II of León repudiates his wife, Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter.
  301. 1184-XX-XX: The Portuguese defeat the Almohads at Santarém.
  302. 1185-XX-XX: Sancho I of Portugal becomes King of Portugal.
  303. 1185-XX-XX: Sancho I of Portugal founds several new towns and villages and takes great care in populating remote areas in the northern Christian regions of Portugal
  304. 1185-12-06: King Afonso I of Portugal dies.

  305. 1211-XX-XX: Afonso II of Portugal becomes king.
  306. 1212-XX-XX: Culmination of the Reconquista. Christians, amongst them the troops of King Afonso II of Portugal, defeat Almohads (Caliph Muhammad an-Nasir) at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.
  307. 1217-XX-XX: The town of Alcácer do Sal is conquered to the Moors.
  308. 1233-XX-XX: Sancho II of Portugal becomes king.
  309. 1236-XX-XX: Portugal captures most of the Algarve.
  310. 1246-XX-XX: Pope Innocent IV declares Sancho II an heretic and orders his removal of the throne.
  311. 1247-XX-XX: Afonso III of Portugal becomes king; Sancho II is exiled to Toledo.
  312. 1254-XX-XX: First official reunion of the Cortes, the kingdom's general assembly.
  313. 1255-XX-XX: The city of Lisbon becomes the capital-city of Portugal.
  314. 1272-XX-XX: Afonso III conquers Faro from the Moors, thus removing all Muslim communities from Portuguese soil and ending the Portuguese Reconquista.
  315. 1276-XX-XX: John XXI becomes the first and only Portuguese Pope (died 1277).
  316. 1279-XX-XX: Dinis of Portugal becomes king.
  317. 1290-03-01: Creation of the Estudo Geral (General Study) in Coimbra, the first Portuguese University, with the Faculties of Arts, Canons, Laws and Medicine, and later confirmed by the Pope Nicholas IV
  318. 1297-XX-XX: Dinis signs the Treaty of Alcanizes with Ferdinand IV of Castile to define the borders between Portugal and Castile.

  319. 1308-XX-XX: First Portuguese commercial treaty, signed with England.
  320. 1325-XX-XX: Afonso IV of Portugal becomes king.
  321. 1341-XX-XX: Portugal raids the Canary Islands.
  322. 1355-XX-XX: Inês de Castro is killed by royal order which triggers a civil war between Afonso IV and his heir Pedro.
  323. 1357-XX-XX: Pedro I of Portugal becomes king; Inês de Castro is removed from her grave and crowned Queen of Portugal.
  324. 1367-XX-XX: Fernando I of Portugal becomes king.
  325. 1383-XX-XX: Civil war and political anarchy, named afterwards the 1383-1385 Crisis.
  326. 1385-04-XX: João I of Portugal acclaimed king by the Portuguese; Castilians do not accept this claim.
  327. 1385-08-14: Battle of Aljubarrota: João I defeats the Castilians and secures the throne.
  328. 1386-05-09: Treaty of Windsor, an alliance between England and Portugal, first portuguese alliance and the oldest diplomatic alliance in the world still in force.
  329. 1394-XX-XX: Henry the Navigator, son of king João I of Portugal, is born.

  330. 1415-XX-XX: João I conquers the city of Ceuta in northern Africa.
  331. 1419-XX-XX: Madeira Islands discovered by João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira.
  332. 1427-XX-XX: Azores Islands discovered by Diogo Silves.
  333. 1433-XX-XX: Duarte of Portugal becomes king.
  334. 1434-XX-XX: Gil Eanes crosses the Bojador Cape: exploration of the African coast begins.
  335. 1438-XX-XX: Afonso V of Portugal becomes king.
  336. 1444-XX-XX: Discovery and settling of Cape Verde islands.
  337. 1470-XX-XX: Discovery of São Tomé island.
  338. 1471-XX-XX: Discovery of Príncipe island.
  339. 1481-XX-XX: João II of Portugal becomes king.
  340. 1483-XX-XX: João II executes Fernando, the third Duke of Braganza, and Diogo, the Duke of Viseu, to end high nobility conspiracies.
  341. 1484-XX-XX: Diogo Cão discovers the Congo river.
  342. 1491-XX-XX: Bartolomeu Dias becomes the first European to cross the Cape of Good Hope.
  343. 1494-XX-XX: The Treaty of Tordesilhas signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the colonisable world in two halves.
  344. 1495-XX-XX: Manuel I of Portugal becomes king.
  345. 1498-XX-XX: Vasco da Gama reaches India through navigation around Africa.

  346. 1500-XX-XX: Diogo Dias discovered an island they named after St Lawrence after the saint on whose feast day they had first sighted the island later known as Madagascar.
  347. 1500-XX-XX: Manuel I orders Jews to be either converted or expelled from the territory.
  348. 1500-XX-XX: Gaspar Corte-Real made his first voyage to Newfoundland, formerly known as Terras Corte-Real.
  349. 1500-04-22: Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil (actually, re-discovers, since Portugal knew it was there; Treaty of Tordesilhas' negotiations hints at it).
  350. 1502-XX-XX: Miguel Corte-Real set out for New England in search of his brother, Gaspar.
  351. 1502-XX-XX: João da Nova discovered Ascension Island.
  352. 1502-XX-XX: Fernão de Noronha discovered the island which still bears his name.
  353. 1503-XX-XX: On his return from the East, Estêvão da Gama discovered Saint Helena Island.
  354. 1506-XX-XX: Tristão da Cunha discovered the island that bears his name. Portuguese sailors landed on Madagascar.
  355. 1509-XX-XX: The Gulf of Bengal crossed by Diogo Lopes de Sequeira. On the crossing he also reached Malacca.
  356. 1510-XX-XX: Conquest of Goa by Afonso de Albuquerque.
  357. 1511-XX-XX: Conquest of Malacca by Afonso de Albuquerque.
  358. 1512-XX-XX: António de Abreu reaches Timor island and the Banda Islands, Ambon Island and Seram. Francisco Serrão reaches the Maluku Islands.
  359. 1513-XX-XX: Portuguese are the first European trading ship to touch the coasts of China, under Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello later in the same year.
  360. 1515-XX-XX: Afonso de Albuquerque captures the Kingdom of Hormuz.
  361. 1517-XX-XX: Fernão Pires de Andrade and Tomé Pires chosen by Manuel I to sail to China to formally open relations between the Portuguese Empire and the Ming Dynasty during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor.
  362. 1521-XX-XX: João III of Portugal becomes king.
  363. 1521-XX-XX: António Correia captures Bahrain
  364. 1526-XX-XX: Jorge de Meneses reaches New Guinea for the first time.
  365. 1537-XX-XX: After moving back and forth between Lisbon and Coimbra in the last two centuries, the General Study is definitely established in Coimbra.
  366. 1542-XX-XX: Portuguese explorers Fernão Mendes Pinto, Diogo Zeimoto and Cristovão Borralho are the first Europeans to land in Japan.
  367. 1557-XX-XX: Macau given to Portugal by the Emperor of China as a reward for services rendered against the pirates who infested the South China Sea.
  368. 1557-XX-XX: Sebastião of Portugal becomes king.
  369. 1568-XX-XX: King Sebastião of Portugal comes of age and takes control of government.
  370. 1569-XX-XX: Nagasaki is opened to Portuguese traders.
  371. 1570-XX-XX: Luís de Camões returns to Lisbon from the Orient.
  372. 1570-XX-XX: Goa, in Portuguese India, is attacked by a coalition of Indian forces, but these are defeated by Portuguese Vice-Roy Luís de Ataíde, Count of Atouguia.
  373. 1572-XX-XX: The first edition of the epic poem The Lusiads is published.
  374. 1578-XX-XX: Portuguese troops utterly defeated in Africa, in the battle of Alcácer Quibir; king Sebastião disappears in the battle never to be seen again.
  375. 1578-XX-XX: Cardinal Henrique I of Portugal becomes king.
  376. 1579-XX-XX: Cortes in Lisbon.
  377. 1580-XX-XX: Cortes in Almeirim.
  378. 1580-XX-XX: King Cardinal Henrique I of Portugal dies.
  379. 1580-XX-XX: Invasion of Portugal by a Spanish army commanded by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba.
  380. 1580-XX-XX: Battle of Alcântara between Portuguese and Spanish forces.
  381. 1580-XX-XX: The Fortress of St. Julian, in Lisbon, surrenders to the Spanish.
  382. 1580-XX-XX: Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, is acclaimed King of Portugal in Santarém.
  383. 1580-XX-XX: Death of Luís de Camões, Portugal's national poet.
  384. 1580-XX-XX: Beginning of the Cortes (General Assembly of the Kingdom) of Tomar.
  385. 1581-XX-XX: Philip II of Spain is acclaimed in the Cortes of Tomar as King Philip I of Portugal in a personal union of the Crowns. Portugal loses de facto independence to Spain.
  386. 1581-XX-XX: Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, takes refuge in England.
  387. 1581-XX-XX: The Azores refuse to recognize Philip I of Portugal as King.
  388. 1582-XX-XX: The Spanish Fleet of Santa Cruz defeats the Portuguese-French Fleet of Strozzi in the Azores.
  389. 1582-XX-XX: Introduction of the Gregorian Calendar in Portugal.
  390. 1583-XX-XX: Cortes in Lisbon.
  391. 1583-XX-XX: King Philip I of Portugal departs for Madrid and leaves the government of Portugal with Portuguese trustees.
  392. 1583-XX-XX: The Azores are submitted.
  393. 1583-XX-XX: Francis Drake attacks the Portuguese colony of Brazil.
  394. 1589-XX-XX: Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, attacks Lisbon with English aid, but with no success.
  395. 1595-XX-XX: Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, dies in Paris.
  396. 1598-XX-XX: Philip III of Spain becomes Philip II of Portugal.

  397. 1621-XX-XX: Philip IV of Spain becomes Philip III of Portugal.
  398. 1640-12-01: A small group of conspirators storms the Palace in Lisbon and deposes the Vicereine of Portugal, Margaret of Savoy. The Duke of Bragança accepts the throne as Dom João IV of Portugal by popular acclaim and at the urging of his wife. His entire reign will be dominated by the struggle to maintain independence from Spain. Francisco de Lucena changes his loyalties and becomes chief minister of the restored monarchy.
  399. 1641-XX-XX: The Portuguese Inquisition attempts to derail the national restoration, but the plot fails and the leaders are executed. Meanwhile the Dutch renew their attack on Angola and capture the most extensive Portuguese slaving grounds in Africa, including the Angolan port of Luanda. The Portuguese garrison flees upriver while trying to decide whether to declare continuing loyalty to the Habsburgs, accept Dutch rule or declare for João IV. They choose the House of Bragança and appeal to the Portuguese colony of Brazil for help in fending off African and Dutch attacks on their enclave. Salvador de Sá, leader of Rio de Janeiro, persuaded by the Jesuits in Brazil, also declares for King João and responds to the Angolan appeal.
  400. 1641-XX-XX: Dutch renew their attack on Angola and capture a vast amount of portuguese lands in Africa, including Luanda. The Portuguese garrison flees but declare for João IV and appeal to the Portuguese colony of Brazil for help in fending off African and Dutch attacks on their enclave. Salvador de Sá, leader of Rio de Janeiro, persuaded by the Jesuits in Brazil, also declares for King João and responds to the Angolan appeal.
  401. 1644-XX-XX: Elvas withstands a nine-day siege by Spanish troops.
  402. 1648-XX-XX: The Portuguese from Brazil under Salvador de Sá land in Angola, expel the Dutch and restore the African colony to Portugal.
  403. 1654-XX-XX: Anglo-Portuguese treaty between João IV and Oliver Cromwell signed at Westminster. João agrees to prevent the molestation of the traders of the English Protector; they are allowed to use their own bible and bury their dead according to Protestant rites on Catholic soil.
  404. 1654-XX-XX: The Portuguese in Brazil drive the Dutch out of the great plantation colonies of the north-east, re-establishing the territorial integrity of Portugal’s South American empire.
  405. 1656-XX-XX: Death of João IV after a reign of 15 years. His Queen now reigns as Regent for their son, Afonso VI of Portugal and she seeks an accommodation with Spain.
  406. 1659-XX-XX: The Treaty of the Pyrenees ends Spain’s long war with France, and Spanish troops are freed to attack the Portuguese.
  407. 1659-XX-XX: The Spaniards besiege Monção and are driven off by the Countess of Castelo Melhor.
  408. 1660-XX-XX: On the restoration of Charles II in Britain, the Queen-Regent re-negotiates the treaty of 1654: Portugal is allowed to recruit soldiers and horses in England for the fight against Spain, to seek out 4,000 fighting men in Scotland and Ireland and charter 24 English ships to carry them, and the expeditionary force is to be issued with English weapons on arrival in Portugal and guaranteed religious freedom of worship.
  409. 1661-XX-XX: Catarina da Bragança, sister of Afonso VI, marries Charles II of Great Britain on 31 May and this marriage with a Protestant monarch is deeply unpopular with the section of the Portuguese nobility which favours alliance with France.
  410. 1662-XX-XX: In a palace coup d’etat in Lisbon a restive younger faction of the nobility, supported by the young Afonso VI, overthrows the Queen Regent and installs the 26-year-old Count of Castelo Melhor as ‘dictator’ to prosecute the war with Spain. The adolescent king is married to a French princess and the young dictator models his government on the royal absolutism of the Bourbon dynasty. Opposition to this pro-French absolutism (from the King’s sister the Queen of England, and his younger brother Prince Pedro) is swept aside, and Castelo Melhor initiates the final, successful phase of the Portuguese war of restoration with the aid of the Franco-German Marshal Schomberg, who brilliantly commands an international mercenary army against the Spanish forces.
  411. 1665-06-17: Portugal is victorious at the decisive Battle of Montes Claros, in which António Luís de Menezes defeats the Spanish army under the Prince of Parma; Spain ceases to make war, but peace will not be signed for another three years.
  412. 1667-XX-XX: Castelo Melhor and his Francophile party are overthrown in a new palace revolution. Prince Pedro, leader of the Anglophile party, becomes Regent for Afonso VI, who is declared incapable of governing and removed to the Azores. The French alliance is rejected, though Pedro shores up his political position by marrying his brother’s estranged Queen. Castelo Melhor flees into exile (ironically, to England).
  413. 1668-XX-XX: Peace treaty with Spain ends nearly 30 years of war. Portugal keeps all his possessions and territory with the exception of Ceuta in Morocco, which is ceded to Spain.
  414. 1668-XX-XX: The Count of Ericeira, economic adviser to the Prince Regent, advocates the development of a native textile industry modelled on Flemish lines and basic production facilities are established at Covilhã with easy access to flocks of sheep and clean mountain water; this is highly unpopular with both town consumers and traditional weavers.
  415. 1668-XX-XX: Portuguese attempts to develop a silk industry are fiercely resisted by the French, who wish to monopolize that market.
  416. 1683-XX-XX: Death of Afonso VI. Pedro II of Portugal becomes king.
  417. 1697-XX-XX: Discovery of gold in the interior of São Paulo province, Brazil.

  418. 1700-XX-XX: Brazil now producing 50,000 ounces of gold per year.
  419. 1703-05-16: Sir John Methuen negotiates a Military Treaty with Portugal, giving Britain an entry to Portugal at a time when the Bourbon dynastic alliance of France and Spain appears to threaten English access to the Continent.
  420. 1703-12-27: Commercial Methuen Treaty, signed to stimulate trade with Britain. This lasts until 1810 and opens up new markets for Portuguese wine but eventually destroys the textile industry due to letting in British cloth at preferential rates.
  421. 1704-XX-XX: The fashion for Portuguese wine in Britain, where there is a ban of French wine due to the War of the Spanish Succession, makes the wine trade so profitable and competitive that over the next 40 years inferior english wines, often adulterated and artificially coloured are passed off as the genuine article, giving real Port wines a bad name.
  422. 1705-XX-XX: Brazil is now producing 600,000 ounces of gold per year. For the second time in its history, Portugal controls one of the greatest gold-producing sources in the world.
  423. 1706-XX-XX: João V of Portugal becomes king. He presides over a great flowering of Portuguese art and culture underpinned by the fabulous wealth provided by Brazilian gold. Civil war breaks out between the mining camps of Portuguese immigrants on the north of the country and the Paulistas of southern Brazil who discovered the gold in the first place.
  424. 1717-XX-XX: Beginning of construction of the great palace-monastery of Mafra, which João V vowed on the birth of his heir, and which he intends as a rival to the Escorial. The elegance of the suites and courtyards are matched by the costliness of the furnishings in more than 1,000 rooms. The scale of the buildings and formal gardens is stupendous in relation to the impoverished countryside around it. However the roped gangs of forced labourers and the military regiment which controls them provides local employment throughout a generation, particularly in the servicing of the 7,000 carts and wagons and feeding of draught animals.
  425. 1735-XX-XX: Completion of the palace-monastery at Mafra.
  426. 1742-XX-XX: João V orders the construction in Rome of the Capela de São João Baptista for installation in the Igreja de São Roque to honour his patron saint and to requite the Pope, whom he has persuaded to confer a patriarchate on Lisbon. It is for its size the most expensive building ever constructed; designed by the papal architect Vanvitelli, and using the most costly materials available including ivory, agate, porphyry and lapis lazuli, the chapel is erected in the Vatican in order that the Pope may celebrate Mass in it before it is dismantled and shipped to Portugal.
  427. 1750-XX-XX: Death of João V. His son José I of Portugal becomes king. His powerful chief minister, Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal, embarks on a programme of reform to drag Portugal into the 18th century.
  428. 1752-XX-XX: Building of the Rococo palace of Queluz.
  429. 1755-11-01: Great Earthquake of Portugal. It's the most shattering natural phenomenon of the Age of Enlightenment, striking at 9.30 AM on All Saints’ Day (1 November), it destroys much of Lisbon and many towns in Alentejo and Algarve (Faro, Lagos and Albufeira are devastated). In Lisbon, three major shocks within ten minutes, a host of rapidly spreading fires touched off by the candles of a hundred church altars, and a tsunami that engulfs the seafront, leave 40,000 dead out of a total population of 270,000. The Alfama district of the old city is largely untouched owing to its situation on a rocky massif, as is Belém. The Customs House is flooded and the India House and the English Factory destroyed, causing that no trade can legitimately be conducted. The King proves himself able and together with many people, they organize defence, security, the burying of the dead and the continuance of religious observance. The disaster is described by Voltaire in the work Candide. Rebuilding begins immediately under the vigorous direction of Pombal, who now consolidates his position as Portugal’s enlightened despot and leading statesman. It is decided to reconstruct Lisbon as the finest city in Europe.
  430. 1759-01-13: All members of the Távora family are executed for high-treason and attempted regicide by orders of the Marquis of Pombal.
  431. 1762-XX-XX: Spanish invasion of Portugal stopped with the help of Great Britain.
  432. 1777-XX-XX: Maria I of Portugal becomes Queen regnant. The King consort is her husband and uncle, Pedro III of Portugal. Pombal is dismissed.
  433. 1792-XX-XX: João assumes royal responsibilities due to the declining mental health of his mother, Maria I of Portugal.
  434. 1799-XX-XX: João officially becomes Prince Regent

  435. 1807-XX-XX: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, invades Portugal and the Portuguese Royal Family is transferred to the colony of Brazil, where it becomes the center of the Portuguese Empire.
  436. 1808-XX-XX: Insurrection against Napoleon's general, Junot and landing of Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) to defeat the French at the Battle of Vimeiro. Beginning of the Peninsular War.
  437. 1815-XX-XX: The colony of Brazil is elevated to the status of kingdom. Portugal changes the official name from Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves to United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
  438. 1816-XX-XX: João VI of Portugal becomes king. Portugal is governed by a Regency council headed by Marshal Beresford, head of the Portuguese army in the Peninsular War.
  439. 1820-08-24: Liberal Revolution of 1820 against the British-led Regency of William Carr Beresford begins in Porto on 24 August.
  440. 1820-09-15: The Regency's troops decline to act against their countrymen and on 15 September declare for King, Cortes and Constitution.
  441. 1820-10-01: A provisional government is established on 1 October to oversee elections to the Cortes.
  442. 1821-03-09: The national assembly opens on 26 January and on 9 March adopts a liberal parliamentary constitution (ratified 1822), inspired by the recent liberal advances in Spain, notably the 1812 Constitution of Cadiz.
  443. 1821-04-XX: Metropolitan Portugal demands the return of João VI to Lisbon. João VI advises his son, Pedro, to declare the independence of Brazil and become its emperor, to ensure its continued rule by the Bragança dynasty. João VI lands in Portugal on 4 July, but only after consenting to the restrictions on his power proposed by the Cortes and agreeing to accept the new constitution, to which he swears allegiance on 1 October. But his wife Queen Carlota Joaquina and younger son Dom Miguel refuse to do so and become the focus of a reactionary movement.
  444. 1822-XX-XX: Brazil declares independence. Pedro becomes Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. Military coup against the parliamentarians. Fearing a move by France against democratic Portugal, or a civil war, Brigadier Saldanha, a grandson of the Marquis of Pombal, raises a small army and expels the ‘constitutional extremists’ from Lisbon. He proposes instead a compromise constitution in which the powers of the crown will be partially restored to the King. (This is the first of Saldanha's seven coups d'état in his career).
  445. 1824-04-XX: At the end of April Miguel attempts a coup d'etat but is defeated with British aid and goes into exile in Vienna.
  446. 1823-05-XX: In May a 'Regency of Portugal' is established by the expelled traditionalists who had opposed the constitution at Valladolid, under the presidency of the Patriarch of Lisbon and becomes a centre for plotting to put Dom Miguel on the throne.
  447. 1826-03-10: Death of João VI
  448. 1826-04-23: With the country is split between liberals and absolutists, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil becomes king Pedro IV of Portugal but abdicates in favour of his daughter Maria II of Portugal, naming his sister as Regent and inviting all parties swear to accept a new constitution, drawn up by Pedro on 23 April and somewhat less liberal than that of 1820, based upon the Brazilian constitution. Pedro’s constitution (the Charter of 1826) assigns authority to the crown to moderate between the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the state and proposes a House of Lords of 72 aristocrats and 19 bishops. Miguel (in Vienna) makes a show of agreement.
  449. 1827-06-XX: In July Pedro names his brother Dom Miguel as Lieutenant and Regent of the Kingdom. Miguel leaves Vienna and visits Paris and London on his way to Portugal.
  450. 1828-02-XX: Dom Miguel arrives in Lisbon in February
  451. 1828-07-04: Dom Miguel makes a show of abiding by the constitution, after various moves against the constitutional forces he usurps the throne and abolishes parliament and the constitution, re-instituting the mediaeval Cortes and claiming to be 'Absolute King'. Many of the liberal parliamentarians are imprisoned, executed or driven into exile. All Portuguese territories apart from Terceira in the Azores declare for Miguel, but he is recognized as King only by Mexico and the USA. Beginning of civil war, known as the Liberal Wars.
  452. 1831-XX-XX: Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates in favour of his son Pedro II of Brazil and sets out to regain Portugal for his daughter.
  453. 1832-XX-XX: Pedro's expeditionary force of Portuguese exiles and foreign mercenaries gathers in Terceira, regains the Azores, then sails for Portugal. Pedro is supported by Britain and France and the Portuguese intelligentsia, including the politically ambitious soldiers Saldanha and Sá da Bandeira. ON the 9th July Pedro lands at Pampelido north of Porto, where he is closely besieged by some 13,000 Miguelites across the River Douro. His defending force, the city garrison being commanded by Sá da Bandeira, includes an international brigade with a British contingent under Charles Shaw and Colonel George Lloyd Hodges. The city suffers cholera, starvation and bombardment.
  454. 1833-XX-XX: Miguel's navy is defeated by Pedro's Admiral Charles Napier at the fourth Battle of Cape St Vincent. The Duke of Terceira defeats Miguel's army at Almada and occupies Lisbon.
  455. 1834-05-16: The Duke of Terceira wins the Battle of Asseiceira.
  456. 1834-05-26: Miguel capitulates at Evoramonte on 26 May. End of the civil war: Miguel is exiled to Genoa, where he renounces his capitulation. For many years he plots his return, but is never able to put it into effect. After six years of bitter and destructive war the country is once again bankrupt and beholden to foreign creditors, and the constitutional radicals turn their anger against the landowners and ecclesiastical institutions that had supported Miguel. The crown lands (a quarter of the national territory) are taken over by the state to help pay the national debt.
  457. 1834-09-24: Death of Dom Pedro. Maria II of Portugal becomes queen in her own right. Dissolution of the monasteries, over 300 monastic communities are abolished, but the sale of church and crown lands does not revitalise Portugal in the way that had been anticipated.
  458. 1835-XX-XX: Revolutionary fervour is rekindled by an urban uprising and a military coup d’etat. The National Guard sides with the insurgents and approved the call for Sá da Bandeira to lead the nation and bring back the constitution of 1822. Queen Maria is forced to swear allegiance to the 1822 constitution but the moderate leader, Saldanha, reaches an accommodation with Sá da Bandeira and a modest programme of modernisation can begin.
  459. 1839-XX-XX: An unsettled period of many short-lived governments ends temporarily with the stable coalition led by the Conde do Bonfim, which remains in power for two years.
  460. 1843-XX-XX: Queen Maria II marries Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who rules with her as Dom Fernando II, the thirtieth King of Portugal. He commissions the German architect Baron Eschwege to begin the building of the Pena Palace at Sintra.
  461. 1846-XX-XX: The Revolution of Maria da Fonte, a ‘peasants’ revolt’ inaugurates the last phase of the Revolution, starting as an uprising of the peasants in Minho, largely led by women (their movement is named after the semi-mythical ‘Maria da Fonte’) against land enclosures and new land taxes demanded by the Costa Cabral government to finance its grandiose public works. They make common cause with the clergy and call for the return of the exiled Miguel as their saviour. Martial law is declared but soldiers refuse to fire on their kin. Fall of the Costa Cabral government and substitution of a government of national reconciliation in Lisbon.
  462. 1846-10-XX: A revolutionary government is proclaimed in Porto with Sá da Bandeira at its head. He opens negotiations with Britain, whence Costa Cabral has fled into exile, and settles terms for his return to take responsibility for the national debt and a civil war between the supporters of Queen Maria and the radical constitutionalists erupts. The Count of Bonfim, for the Porto junta, is defeated by Saldanha at the siege of Torres Vedras and exiled to Angola.
  463. 1847-XX-XX: Convention of Gramido brings the civil war to an end. Return of the political exiles from Angola.
  464. 1848-XX-XX: Costa Cabral returns as prime minister.
  465. 1851-XX-XX: Another coup d’etat by Saldanha. He ejects Costa Cabral, appoints himself prime minister and rules reasonably progressively from the house of lords for a full five-year term. Thus a proper parliamentary regime is finally established, with a two-party system and a bourgeois monarchy. Portugal enters its Age of Regeneration. The government embarks on an elaborate programme of public works to modernize the country, beginning with the establishment of a modern post office and a programme of road-building.
  466. 1853-XX-XX: Pedro V of Portugal becomes king.
  467. 1856-XX-XX: Opening of Portugal's first railway line (between Lisbon and Carregado).
  468. 1861-XX-XX: Luis I of Portugal becomes king.
  469. 1867-07-01: After the legislation of 1852 regarding political crimes, the Penal and Prison Reform abolishes the death penalty for all civilian crimes.
  470. 1869-XX-XX: The government of Sá da Bandeira formally abolishes slavery in all Portuguese territories.
  471. 1870-XX-XX: A financial crisis in the wake of European recession brings the fall of the government and yet another coup d’etat by the aged Duque de Saldanha.
  472. 1891-XX-XX: Republican insurrection in Porto. It is violently put down by the authorities, who afterwards institute a tight press censorship. Opponents of the government are accused of anarchism and exiled to the colonies.
  473. 1889-XX-XX: Carlos I of Portugal becomes king.

  474. 1906-XX-XX: João Franco is appointed as Prime Minister of Portugal.
  475. 1906-XX-XX: Foundation of the Escola Superior Colonial (Superior Colonial School)
  476. 1907-XX-XX: João Franco establishes a Dictatorship within the framework of the Monarchy.
  477. 1907-XX-XX: Student's strike at the University of Coimbra.
  478. 1908-XX-XX: Manuel II of Portugal, King Carlos youngest son, becomes king.
  479. 1908-XX-XX: The Portuguese Republican Party manages to elect all its candidates in the local elections of Lisbon.
  480. 1908-01-28: Failed Republican revolutionary attempt. The conspirators are arrested.
  481. 1908-02-01: 1 February, King Carlos I of Portugal and his son and heir, prince Luis Filipe, Duke of Braganza, are killed in the Regicide of Lisbon by Alfredo Costa and Manuel Buiça, republicans of the Carbonária (the Portuguese section of the Carbonari).
  482. 1909-XX-XX: King Manuel II of Portugal goes in a personal trip to Madrid, London and Paris.
  483. 1909-XX-XX: The Portuguese Republican Party's Conference takes place in Setúbal, where the motion to accelerate the revolutionary movement to establish the Republic is approved.
  484. 1909-XX-XX: In Lisbon a demonstration with more than 100,000 people protests against the political and economical situation of the Monarchy.
  485. 1910-10-04: Beginning of the Republican Revolution.
  486. 1910-10-04: The Republic is proclaimed in Loures, just north of Lisbon.
  487. 1910-10-05: The last King of Portugal, Manuel II of Portugal, flees into exile. After Manuel, several lines of pretenders ensued.
  488. 1910-10-05: The Portuguese Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon. End of the Monarchy.
  489. 1910-XX-XX: The last King of Portugal, Manuel II of Portugal, and the Portuguese Royal Family embark in Ericeira for exile in England.
  490. 1910-XX-XX: The Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon.
  491. 1917-XX-XX: Portugal joins the allied forces in World War I.
  492. 1918-XX-XX: The Monarchy of the North is proclaimed in Porto, and the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy lasts for about a month before being crushed by republican forces.
  493. 1921-XX-XX: Portuguese Communist Party founded from the ranks of the Portuguese Maximalist Federation as the Portuguese Section of the Communist International.
  494. 1925-XX-XX: Bernardino Machado is elected President of the Republic for the 2nd time.
  495. 1926-05-27: The General Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa arrives at Braga with the purpose of initiating a Coup d'état.
  496. 1926-05-27: The Republican Government and Prime Minister António Maria da Silva, knowing of the forthcoming coup, try to organize resistance believing the uprising can be defeated.
  497. 1926-05-28: Military coup d'état ends the 1st Portuguese Republic.
  498. 1926-05-29: The Portuguese Communist Party interrupts its 2nd Congress due to the political and military situation.
  499. 1926-05-29: The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) declares its neutrality in the military confrontations.
  500. 1926-05-29: The Military Coup spreads to the rest of the country, by influence of Mendes Cabeçadas, Sinel de Cordes and Óscar Carmona, and establishes the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) against the democratic but unstable 1st Republic.
  501. 1926-05-29: The Government of Prime Minister António Maria da Silva resigns.
  502. 1926-05-30: The General Gomes da Costa is acclaimed in Porto.
  503. 1926-05-30: The President of the Republic, Bernardino Machado, resigns.
  504. 1926-05-30: José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior becomes Prime Minister and President of the Republic.
  505. 1926-06-03: António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance, he resigns 16 days after nomination.
  506. 1926-06-XX: The Congress of the Republic of Portugal (National Assembly) is dissolved by dictatorial decree.
  507. 1926-06-XX: All heads of Municipalities are substituted.
  508. 1926-06-XX: The Carbonária (the Portuguese section of the Carbonari) is banned.
  509. 1926-06-XX: All Political parties are banned.
  510. 1926-06-17: General Gomes da Costa provokes a military coup.
  511. 1926-06-19: General Gomes da Costa becomes Prime Minister.
  512. 1926-06-22: Censorship is instituted.
  513. 1926-06-29: General Gomes da Costa becomes President of the Republic.
  514. 1926-07-09: General Gomes da Costa is obliged to step down and goes into exile.
  515. 1926-07-09: General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, of the conservative military wing, becomes Prime Minister.
  516. 1926-09-15: Failed military coup.
  517. 1926-09-18: Failed military coup.
  518. 1926-11-29: General António Óscar Carmona becomes President of the Republic.
  519. 1926-12-16: The Police of Information of Lisbon, a Political Police, is created.
  520. 1927-XX-XX: The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) is dissolved.
  521. 1927-02-XX: Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional in Porto and Lisbon.
  522. 1927-03-26: The Police of Information of Porto, a Political Police, is created.
  523. 1927-05-17: Minimum School years are reduced from the 6th to the 4th grade; in all levels of non-university schooling students are divided by sex.
  524. 1927-08-XX: Failed right wing military coup.
  525. 1927-12-01: Students demonstrate in Lisbon against the Ditadura Nacional.
  526. 1928-XX-XX: General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona remains President of the Republic.
  527. 1928-XX-XX: Acordo Missionário (Missionary Agreement) between the Catholic Church and the Portuguese Republic, giving special status to the action of the Catholic Church in Portugal's colonies.
  528. 1928-XX-XX: Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional.
  529. 1928-XX-XX: The Portuguese Communist Party's Main Office is closed.
  530. 1928-02-XX: The Comissão de Propaganda da Ditadura (Commission for the Propaganda of the Dictatorship) is created.
  531. 1928-03-17: The Police of Information of Porto and Lisbon are fused.
  532. 1928-04-18: General José Vicente de Freitas becomes Prime Minister.
  533. 1928-04-26: António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance for the 2nd time.
  534. 1929-XX-XX: Catholic religious institutes are again permitted in Portugal.
  535. 1929-XX-XX: The Portuguese Communist Party is reorganized under Bento Gonçalves. Adapting the Party to its new illegal status, the reorganization creates a net of clandestine cells to avoid the wave of detentions.
  536. 1929-07-08: Artur Ivens Ferraz becomes Prime Minister.
  537. 1930-XX-XX: The Acto Colonial (Colonial Act) is published, defining the status of Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cabinda, Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Mozambique, Portuguese India, Portuguese Timor and Macau).
  538. 1930-XX-XX: The fundamental principles of the new regime are present by António de Oliveira Salazar in the 4th anniversary of the 28 May Revolution.
  539. 1930-01-21: Domingos da Costa e Oliveira becomes Prime Minister.
  540. 1932-07-05: António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Prime Minister.
  541. 1933-XX-XX: A new Constitution is approved in a false referendum, defining Portugal as a Corporative, Single Party and Multi-continental country (in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania).
  542. 1933-XX-XX: A Fascist Dictatorial regime entitled Estado Novo is installed.
  543. 1933-XX-XX: The Single Party União Nacional (National Union) is created.
  544. 1933-XX-XX: The Estatuto do Trabalho Nacional (Code of National Labour) is published, prohibiting all free trade unions.
  545. 1933-XX-XX: A Political Police, the PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado; State Defense and Vigilance Police) is created.
  546. 1933-XX-XX: Censorship, particularly of the Mass media, is systematic and generalized.
  547. 1935-XX-XX: The Portuguese Communist Party's Secretary General Bento Gonçalves participates in the 7th Congress of the Comintern. Soon after returning to Portugal he is arrested by the Political Police PVDE.
  548. 1936-XX-XX: The concentration camp for political prisoners of Tarrafal is created in the colony of Portuguese Cape Verde, under direct control of the political police PVDE.
  549. 1936-XX-XX: The political police PVDE focuses its action against Communism and the underground Portuguese Communist Party. During this pre-World War II period, several Italian Fascist and German Nazi advisors came to Portugal, to help the PVDE adopt a model similar to the Gestapo.
  550. 1936-05-19: Creation of the Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth), a compulsory paramilitary youth organization similar to the Hitler Youth.
  551. 1936-07-XX: Beginning of the Spanish Civil War; Portugal promptly supports Nationalist Spain under General Francisco Franco and sends military aid (the Battalion of the Viriatos) in their fight against the Spanish Republicans.
  552. 1939-XX-XX: The Iberian Neutrality Pact is put forward by Salazar to Francisco Franco.
  553. 1942-XX-XX: Salazar meets with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.
  554. 1942-XX-XX: The Portuguese Communist Party's Secretary General Bento Gonçalves dies in the concentration camp of Tarrafal.
  555. 1945-XX-XX: The Political Police PVDE is reorganized and renamed PIDE (Polícia Internacional de Defesa do Estado; International Police for the Defense of the State).
  556. 1945-10-08: The MUD (Movimento de Unidade Democrática – Movement of Democratic Unity) is created with official permission.
  557. 1948-01-XX: The MUD is banished.
  558. 1949-XX-XX: The President António Óscar Carmona meets with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.
  559. 1949-XX-XX: Spanish dictator Francisco Franco receives a Doctorate honoris causa by the University of Coimbra.
  560. 1949-XX-XX: In the forged Presidential elections, General Norton de Matos, backed by the oppositionist illegal organization MUD tries and fail to win the Presidency of the Republic.
  561. 1949-04-04: Portugal is a founding member of NATO.
  562. 1949-XX-XX: For the first time, a Portuguese citizen is awarded with the Nobel Prize: Egas Moniz, with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  563. 1951-XX-XX: António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Provisional President of the Republic due to the death of President António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona.
  564. 1951-XX-XX: Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes becomes President of the Republic.
  565. 1951-XX-XX: The Portuguese government overhauls the entire colonial system in an attempt to curb criticism on Portuguese Colonialism, all Portugal's colonies were renamed Portuguese Overseas Provinces.
  566. 1954-XX-XX: The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Portuguese enclave, dependent of Daman, is occupied by India.
  567. 1956-XX-XX: Amílcar Cabral founds the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde).
  568. 1956-12-XX: The MPLA, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), is founded by Agostinho Neto.
  569. 1957-XX-XX: Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola), is founded as União das Populações do Norte de Angola (Union of the Populations of Northern Angola).
  570. 1957-03-07: First live event of the Portuguese National Television and the beginning of the regular broadcasting. It was opened by the famous war reporter, Fernando Pessa.
  571. 1958-XX-XX: Américo Thomaz becomes President of the Republic.
  572. 1960-01-XX: A group of ten Portuguese Communist Party members escaped from the high-security prison in Peniche. Among the escapees was Álvaro Cunhal.
  573. 1960-01-04: Portugal is one of the founding member of the EFTA – European Free Trade Association.
  574. 1961-XX-XX: The Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar takes on himself the office of Minister of National Defense and reorganizes the Government to face the war in Africa.
  575. 1961-02-04: The Portuguese Colonial War starts in Portuguese Angola.
  576. 1961-03-15: Attacks in northern Angola by the UPA (União do Povo Angolano; Union of the Angolan People), against Portuguese colonists and African populations.
  577. 1961-12-12: The Indian army conquers Portuguese Goa.
  578. 1961-12-19: The Indian army conquers Portuguese Daman and Diu.
  579. 1962-XX-XX: The PAIGC Guerrilla warfare against the Portuguese begins with an abortive attack on Praia.
  580. 1962-03-24: The Academic Crisis of '62 culminates in a huge student demonstration in Lisbon brutally repressed by the shock police, which caused hundreds of students to be seriously injured.
  581. 1962-06-25: The FRELIMO – Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (Mozambican Liberation Front) is founded in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania).
  582. 1963-XX-XX: The FLEC (Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda; Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda) is founded.
  583. 1963-01-XX: Amílcar Cabral and PAIGC declare full-scale war against the Portuguese in Portuguese Guinea.
  584. 1964-XX-XX: The FRELIMO controls most of Northern Portuguese Mozambique.
  585. 1964-02-XX: The first Party Congress of the PAIGC takes place at liberated Cassaca, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganised, with a regular army (The People's Army) to supplement the guerilla forces (The People's Guerillas).
  586. 1965-XX-XX: 6th Congress of the Portuguese Communist Party, one of the most important congresses in the Party's history, after Álvaro Cunhal released the report “The Path to Victory – The tasks of the Party in the National and Democratic Revolution”, which became an important document in the anti-dictatorship struggle.
  587. 1966-XX-XX: The UNITA – União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for Total Independence of Angola) is founded by Jonas Savimbi.
  588. 1966-08-06: The Salazar Bridge (current 25 de Abril) is inaugurated in Lisbon above the Tagus river. It is the longest suspension bridge in Europe and a replica of the Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco and made by the same engineers.
  589. 1967-XX-XX: PAIGC effectively controlls 2/3 of Portuguese Guinea after a total of 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army encampments.
  590. 1968-XX-XX: Reorganisation of the Government.
  591. 1968-XX-XX: Portugal begins a new campaign against the guerillas in Portuguese Guinea with the arrival of the new governor of the colony, General António de Spínola.
  592. 1968-09-25: António de Oliveira Salazar leaves the Government due to health problems.
  593. 1968-09-28: Marcello das Neves Alves Caetano becomes Prime Minister.
  594. 1969-XX-XX: The Single Party União Nacional is renamed Acção Nacional Popular (National Popular Action).
  595. 1969-XX-XX: The Political Police PIDE is renamed DGS (Direcção Geral de Segurança, Directorate-General of Security).
  596. 1969-04-XX: Beginning of the Primavera Marcelista (Marcelist Springtime), a timid and failed opening of the regime.
  597. 1970-XX-XX: Portugal invades Conakry, in the Republic of Guinea, 400 amphibious troops attacked the city and freed dozens of Portuguese Prisoners of war kept there by the PAIGC.
  598. 1970-07-27: Death of António de Oliveira Salazar.
  599. 1973-01-XX: Amílcar Cabral, leader of the PAIGC, is assassinated in Conakry by a disgruntled former associate under influence of the Portuguese Political Police DGS.
  600. 1973-09-24: Independence of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese Guinea) is unilaterally declared.
  601. 1973-11-XX: A United Nations' General Assembly vote recognizes the Independence of Guinea-Bissau.
  602. 1974-04-25: The Carnation Revolution (based on a military coup and not on a popular uprising) puts an end to the authoritarian regime of Estado Novo. Prime-minister Marcello Caetano exiled to Brazil
  603. 1975-XX-XX: Independence is granted to all Portuguese colonies in Africa and independence is promised to Portuguese Timor.
  604. 1975-03-11: A right-wing coup fails: A turn to the left in the revolution happens and major industries and big properties are nationalized by government
  605. 1975-08-02: A meeting takes place in Haga (near Stockholm in Sweden) where the Committee for Friendship and Solidarity with Democracy and Socialism in Portugal is created. This Committee supported democratic trends in Portugal and opposed pro-soviet communist tendencies. In the meeting were present Olof Palme, Harold Wilson, Helmut Schmidt, Bruno Kreisky, Joop den Uyl, Trygve Bratteli, Anker Jørgensen, Yitzhak Rabin, Hans Janitschek, Willy Brandt, James Callaghan, François Mitterrand, Bettino Craxi and Mário Soares.
  606. 1975-11-25: A coup removes far-left influence in politics
  607. 1975-12-07: East Timor (Portuguese Timor) is violently annexed by Indonesia
  608. 1976-04-02: a new Constitution is approved. The Constitutional Assembly disestablishes itself.
  609. 1976-04-25: the Constitution of 1976 enters into force.
  610. 1976-11-19: Jaime Ornelas Camacho becomes the first President of the Regional Government of Madeira.
  611. 1980-12-04: Prime minister Francisco Sá Carneiro and the Minister of Defence Amaro da Costa die in a plane crash, still in investigation today.
  612. 1984-XX-XX: Carlos Lopes wins the first Olympic Gold Medal for Portugal in the Los Angeles '84 marathon
  613. 1986-01-01: Portugal becomes a member of the European Economic Community, today's European Union
  614. 1998-XX-XX: Lisbon organizes the World's Fair Expo '98.
  615. 1998-06-28: First referendum in the History of the Portuguese democracy, an abortation referendum, the proposal to allow the abortion until 10 weeks of pregnancy.
  616. 1998-10-08: For the very first time, a Portuguese Language author is awarded with the Nobel Prize of Literature, José Saramago.
  617. 1998-11-08: Regionalisation referendum, a proposal to establish, in mainland Portugal, 8 administrative regions and to disestablish the 18 districts, is rejected in the polls.
  618. 1999-12-20: Macau, the last overseas Portuguese colony, is returned to China

  619. 2002-01-01: Portugal adopts the euro as currency.
  620. 2004-06-12: 2004 European Football Championship is held in Portugal.
  621. 2006-01-01: The 2006 Dakar Rally, the longest and, arguably, the hardest off-road rally in the world starts in Lisbon.
  622. 2007-02-11: In the second Portuguese abortation referendum, the proposal to allow the abortion until 10 weeks of pregnancy is approved.
  623. 2010-05-17: The law that allows the same-sex marriage is approved by the Portuguese President of the Republic, Cavaco Silva.
  624. 2010-06-XX: In 2010, the official infant mortality rate was 2.53 per mil, the lowest ever recorded in Portugal, placing it in Top5 in the EU in this particular value of Human Development.